Classic Cat


Absolute pitch

Buy sheetmusic at SheetMusicPlus

Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of an external reference.



Absolute pitch (AP), or perfect pitch, is the ability to name or reproduce a tone without reference to an external standard.[1]

The naming/labeling of notes need not be verbal. AP can also be demonstrated by other codes such as auditory imagery or sensorimotor responses, for example, reproducing a tone on an instrument. Therefore a musician from an aural tradition, with no musical notation, can still exhibit AP when asked to reproduce a sounded note.[2][3]

Possessors of absolute pitch exhibit the ability in varying degrees. Generally, absolute pitch implies some or all of the following abilities when done without reference to an external standard:[4]

  • Identify by name individual pitches (e.g. A, B, C♯) played on various instruments
  • Name the key of a given piece of tonal music just by listening (without reference to an external tone)
  • Identify and name all the tones of a given chord or other tonal mass
  • Accurately sing a given pitch without an external reference
  • Name the pitches of common everyday noises such as car horns
  • Identify the numerical value in hertz of a given note.

Individuals may possess both absolute pitch and relative pitch ability in varying degrees. Both relative and absolute pitch work together in actual musical listening and practice, although individuals exhibit preferred strategies in using each skill.[5]

Scientific studies

History of study and terminologies

Scientific study of absolute pitch appears to have commenced in the 19th century, focusing on the phenomenon of musical pitch and methods of measuring it.[6] While the term absolute pitch, or absolute ear, was in use by the late 19th century by both English[7] and German researchers,[8] its application was not universal; other terms such as musical ear,[6] absolute tone consciousness,[9] or positive pitch[10] were also used to refer to the ability. The skill is not exclusively musical, or limited to human perception; absolute pitch has been demonstrated in animals such as bats, wolves, gerbils, and birds, for whom specific pitches facilitate identification of mates or meals.[11]

Difference in cognition, not elementary sensation

Physically and functionally, the auditory system of an absolute listener does not appear to be measurably different from a non-absolute listener.[12] Rather, "AP perception is not dependent on a special kind of ear; it reflects a particular ability to analyze frequency information, presumably involving high-level cortical processing."[13] Absolute pitch is an act of cognition, needing memory of the frequency, a label for the frequency (such as "B-flat"), and exposure to the range of sound encompassed by that categorical label. Absolute pitch may be directly analogous to recognizing colors, phonemes (speech sounds) or other categorical perception of sensory stimuli. Just as most people have learned to recognize and name the color blue by the frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation that is perceived as light, it is possible that those who have been exposed to musical notes together with their names early in life will be more likely to identify, for example, the note C.[14] Absolute pitch may also be related to certain genes, possibly an autosomal dominant genetic trait,[15][16] though it "might be nothing more than a general human capacity whose expression is strongly biased by the level and type of exposure to music that people experience in a given culture."[17]

Influence by music experience

Absolute pitch sense appears to be influenced by cultural exposure to music, especially in the familiarization of the equal-tempered C-major scale. Most of the absolute listeners that were tested in this respect identified the C-major tones more reliably and, except for B, more quickly than the five "black key" tones,[18] which corresponds to the higher prevalence of these tones in ordinary musical experience. One study of Dutch non-musicians also demonstrated a bias toward using C-major tones in ordinary speech, especially on syllables related to emphasis.[19]


Absolute pitch is more common among speakers of tonal languages such as most dialects of Chinese or Vietnamese, which depend heavily on pitch variation across single words for lexical meaning (ex. Mandarin with four possible pitch variations, Cantonese with six or seven, Minnan with seven or eight (depending on dialect), and Vietnamese with six.)[20][21] Speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages have been reported to speak a word in the same absolute pitch (within a quarter-tone) on different days; it has therefore been suggested that absolute pitch may be acquired by infants when they learn to speak in a tonal language[22] (and possibly also by infants when they learn to speak in a pitch stress language). However, the brains of tonal-language speakers do not naturally process musical sound as language;[23] perhaps such individuals may be more likely to acquire absolute pitch for musical tones when they later receive musical training. Also many native speakers of a tone language, even those with little musical training, are observed to sing the same piece in the same key consistently. Among music students of East Asian ethnic heritage, those who speak a tone language very fluently have a much higher prevalence of absolute pitch than those who speak only nontone language.[24][25]

It is possible that level-tone languages which are found in Africa—such as Yoruba,[26] with three pitch levels, and Mambila,[27] with four—may be better suited to study the role of absolute pitch in speech than the pitch and contour tone languages of East Asia.

Further, speakers of European languages have been found to make use of an absolute, though subconscious, pitch memory when speaking.[28]


Absolute pitch is the ability to perceive chroma and to mentally categorize sounds according to perceived chroma.[29] Chroma is a tonal quality which recurs among tones which share the relationship of an octave. While the boundaries of musical pitch categories vary among human cultures, the recognition of octave relationships is a natural characteristic of the mammalian auditory system.[30][31][32][33][34][35] Accordingly, absolute pitch is not the ability to estimate a pitch value from the dimension of pitch evoking frequency (30–5000 Hz),[14] but to identify a chroma category within the dimension of pitch class (e.g., C-C♯-D ... B-C).

An absolute listener's sense of hearing is typically no keener than that of a non-absolute ("normal") listener.[36] Absolute pitch does not depend upon a refined ability to perceive and discriminate gradations of sound frequencies;[37] furthermore, the tasks of identification (recognizing and naming a pitch) and discrimination (detecting changes or differences in rate of vibration) are accomplished with different brain mechanisms.[38]

Genetics and absolute pitch

The prevalence of absolute pitch is considerably higher among individuals with early childhood in East Asia.[39][40][41][42] While this difference might seem to be genetic in origin;[43] individuals of East Asian ancestry who are born or reared in the United States or Canada are significantly less likely to develop absolute pitch than those raised in East Asia.[42] This presents the likelihood that the difference is explained by cultural experience rather than genetic heritage. Language may be an important factor; many East Asians speak tonal languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese, while others (such as those in Japan and certain provinces of Korea) speak pitch accent languages, and the prevalence of absolute pitch may be partly explained by exposure to pitches together with meaningful musical labels very early in life.[40][41][42][44]

Nature vs. nurture

Many people have believed that musical ability itself is an inborn talent.[10] Some scientists currently believe absolute pitch may have an underlying genetic basis and are trying to locate genetic correlates;[45] while evidence suggesting a genetic locus has recently arisen,[46] most believe that the acquisition of absolute pitch requires early training during a critical period of development, regardless of whether a genetic predisposition toward development exists.[47] The "unlearning theory", first proposed by Otto Abraham,[48] has recently been revived by developmental psychologists who argue that every person possesses absolute pitch (as a mode of perceptual processing) as an infant, but that a shift in cognitive processing styles (from local, absolute processing to global, relational processing) causes most people to unlearn it; or, at least, causes children with musical training to discard absolute pitch as they learn to identify musical intervals.[49] Additionally, any nascent absolute pitch may be lost simply by the lack of reinforcement or lack of clear advantages in most activities in which the developing child is involved. An unequivocal resolution to the ongoing debate would require controlled experiments that are both impractical and unethical.

Researchers have been trying to teach absolute pitch ability for more than a century,[50] and various commercial absolute-pitch training courses have been offered to the public since the early 1900s.[51] No adult has ever been documented to have acquired the ability,[52] as all adults who have undergone AP training have failed, when formally tested, to show "an unqualified level of accuracy... comparable to that of AP possessors".[53]

For children aged 2–4, observations have suggested a certain method of music education[54] may be successful in training absolute pitch,[55] but the same method has also been shown to fail with students 5 years and older.[56]

Pitch memory related to musical context

While very few people have the ability to name a pitch with no external reference, pitch memory can be activated by repeated exposure. People who are not skilled singers will often sing popular songs in the correct key,[57] and can usually recognize when TV themes have been shifted into the wrong key.[58] Members of the Venda culture in South Africa also sing familiar children's songs in the key in which the songs were learned.[59]

This phenomenon is apparently unrelated to musical training. The skill may be associated more closely with vocal production. Violin students learning the Suzuki method are required to memorize each composition in a fixed key and play it from memory on their instrument, but they are not required to sing. When tested, these students did not succeed in singing the memorized Suzuki songs in the correct key.[60]

Possible problems

People who have absolute pitch may feel irritated when a piece is transposed to a different key or played at a nonstandard pitch.[61] Musicians with absolute pitch may fail to develop relative pitch skills when following standard curricula, conceptualizing music as a sequence of absolute tones instead; it thus becomes difficult for them to transpose or play a transposing instrument.[62] They may also not be able to continue playing or singing with a group when the pitch drops, or with an orchestra that is not tuned to standard concert pitch A4 = 440 Hz (variable); this may be due to a perception of pitch which is categorical rather than freely adjustable.[63]

Special populations

The prevalence of absolute pitch is higher among those who are blind from birth as a result of optic nerve hypoplasia, and it has been claimed that it is higher among those with Williams Syndrome[64] and those with an autism spectrum disorder.[65][66]

Correlation with musical talent

Absolute pitch is not a prerequisite for developing a high level of talent as a musician or composer, and musicians may disagree about the overall value and relevance of absolute pitch ability to musical experience. Owing to uncertainty in the historical record, and, until recently, lack of objective tests, it is often impossible to determine whether notable composers and musicians had absolute pitch or not. Since absolute pitch is rare in European musical culture,[41] claims that any particular musician possessed it are to be doubted, unless there is clear contemporary evidence. Among composers of the Baroque and Classical eras, such evidence is available only for Mozart's perfect pitch. He famously attained it at the age of 3.[67] Experts have only surmised that Beethoven had it, merely due to his remarkable ability to compose undetrimented music long after becoming completely deaf. For 19th-century musicians such as Camille Saint-Saëns and John Philip Sousa, it became more common for the presence of absolute pitch to be recorded.[citation needed] Nicolas Slonimsky was discovered to have perfect pitch as a child of six, which led to him being given music lessons by his aunt Isabelle Vengerova, and a life as a musician. He even titled his 1988 autobiography Perfect Pitch: A Life Story (ISBN 0-19-315155-3). The same was the case with jazz pianist Keith Jarrett, starting with his parents discovering his ability to reproduce musical lines on the piano at the age of three.[68]

Relative pitch

Many musicians have quite good relative pitch, a skill which can be learned. With practice, it is possible to listen to a single known pitch once (from a pitch pipe or a tuning fork) and then have stable, reliable pitch identification by comparing the notes heard to the stored memory of the tonic pitch.[69] Unlike absolute pitch, this skill is dependent on a recently perceived tonal center.

See also


  1. ^ Ward, W.D. (1998). "Absolute Pitch". in D. Deutsch (Ed.). The Psychology of Music (Second Edition). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 265–298. ISBN 0-12-213564-4. 
  2. ^ Zatorre, Robert (1989). "Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch". Memory & Cognition 17 (5): 582–589. 
  3. ^ Zatorre, Robert (July 2003). "Absolute pitch: a model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function". Nature Neuroscience 6 (7): 692–695. doi:10.1038/nn1085. PMID 12830161. 
  4. ^ Parncutt, R. and Levitin, D. J. (2001). "Absolute Pitch". in Sadie, S. (Ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan. ISBN 1-56159-239-0. 
  5. ^ Miyazaki, Ken'ichi (June 2004). "How well do we understand absolute pitch?". Acoustical Science and Technology 25 (6): 270–282. doi:10.1250/ast.25.426. Full text
  6. ^ a b e.g. Ellis, Alexander J (November 6, 1876). "On the Sensitiveness of the Ear to Pitch and Change of Pitch in Music". Journal of the Royal Musical Association. (published until 1945 as Proceedings of the Musical Association) 3 (1): 1. doi:10.1093/jrma/3.1.1. Retrieved 24 August 2010 
  7. ^ Bosanquet, R.H.M (1876). An Elementary Treaties on Musical Intervals and Temperament. with an Account of an Enharmonic Harmonium Exhibited in the Loan Collection of Scientific Instruments. London: Macmillan and Co. p. xiv (n17 in electronic page field). Retrieved 24 August 2010 
  8. ^ von Kries, J (1892). "Über das absolute Gehör (About the perfect pitch)" (in German). Zeitschrift für Psychologie 3: 257–79. Retrieved 24 August 2010  Translation by Christopher Aruffo,
  9. ^ Abraham, O (1907). "Das absolute Tonbewußtsein und die Musik (Absolute tone consciousness and music)" (in German). Sammelbände des Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 8: 486–91. Retrieved 25 August 2010  Translation by Christopher Aruffo,
  10. ^ a b Copp, E.F. (1916). "Musical Ability". Journal of Heredity 7: 297–305. Full text
  11. ^ Brown, Kathryn (4 December 1999). "Striking the Right Note". New Scientist 164 (2215): 38–41 
  12. ^ Sergeant, D. (1969). "Experimental investigation of absolute pitch". Journal of Research in Music Education (Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 17, No. 1) 17 (1): 135–143. doi:10.2307/3344200. 
  13. ^ Gregersen, P. K. (1998). "Instant Recognition: The Genetics of Pitch Perception". American Journal of Human Genetics 62 (2): 221–223. doi:10.1086/301734. PMID 9463341. 
  14. ^ a b Takeuchi, A. H. & Hulse, S. H. (1993). "Absolute pitch". Psychological Bulletin 113 (2): 345–361. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.345. PMID 8451339. 
  15. ^ Profita, J. & Bidder, T. G. (1988). "Perfect pitch". American Journal of Medical Genetics 29 (4): 763–771. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320290405. PMID 3400722. 
  16. ^ Baharloo, S., Johnston, P. A., Service, S. K., Gitschier, J. & Freimer, N. B. (1998). "Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components". American Journal of Human Genetics 62 (2): 224–231. doi:10.1086/301704. PMID 9463312. Full text
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Miyazaki, K. (1990). "The speed of musical pitch identification by absolute-pitch possessors". Music Perception 8: 177–188. 
  19. ^ Braun, M. (2002). "Absolute pitch in emphasized speech". Acoustical Society of America: Acoustics Research Letters Online 3: 77–82. doi:10.1121/1.1472336. Full text
  20. ^ [2] D. Deutsch, T. Henthorn and M. Dolson, "Tone Language Speakers Possess Absolute Pitch", lay language version of Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1999, 106, 2267.
  21. ^ [3] D. Deutsch, T. Henthorn, E. Marvin and H. Xu, "Perfect Pitch in Tone Language Speakers Carries Over to Music", lay language version of Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2005, 116, 2580.
  22. ^ Deutsch, D., Henthorn T. and Dolson, M. (2004). "Absolute pitch, speech, and tone language: Some experiments and a proposed framework". Music Perception 21: 339–356. doi:10.1525/mp.2004.21.3.339. Full text
  23. ^ Gandour, J., Wong, D., and Hutchins, G. (1998). "Pitch processing in the human brain is influenced by language experience". Neuroreport 9 (9): 2115–2119. doi:10.1097/00001756-199806220-00038. PMID 9674604. Full text
  24. ^ Deutsch, D., Henthorn, T., Marvin, E., & Xu H-S (2006). "Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: Prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119 (2): 719–722. doi:10.1121/1.2151799. PMID 16521731. Full text
  25. ^ Deutsch, D., Dooley, K., Henthorn, T. and Head, B. (2009). "Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: Association with tone language fluency". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125 (4): 2398–2403. doi:10.1121/1.3081389. PMID 19354413. Full text
  26. ^ Connell, B., Ladd, D. R. (1990). "Aspects of pitch realization in Yoruba". Phonology 7: 1–29. doi:10.1017/S095267570000110X. 
  27. ^ Connell, B. (2000). "The perception of lexical tone in Mambila". Language and Speech 43: 163–182. doi:10.1177/00238309000430020201. PMID 11064955. 
  28. ^ Braun, M. (2001). "Speech mirrors norm-tones: Absolute pitch as a normal but precognitive trait". Acoustical Society of America: Acoustics Research Letters Online 2: 85–90. doi:10.1121/1.1376728. Full text
  29. ^ Rakowski, A. (1993). "Categorical perception in absolute pitch". Archives of Acoustics Quarterly 18: 515–523. 
  30. ^ Morest, D.K. (1965). "The laminar structure of the medial geniculate body of the cat". J. Anat. 99: 143–160. PMID 14245341. 
  31. ^ Cetas, J.S., Price, R.O., Crowe, J.J., Velenovsky, D.S., McMullen, N.T. (2003). "Dendritic orientation and laminar architecture in the rabbit auditory thalamus". J. Comp. Neurol. 458 (3): 307–317. doi:10.1002/cne.10595. PMID 12619083. 
  32. ^ Imig, T.J., Morel, A. (1985). "Tonotopic organization in ventral nucleus of medial geniculate body in the cat". J Neurophysiol 53 (1): 309–340. PMID 3973661. 
  33. ^ Cetas, J.S., Velenovsky, D.S., Price, R.O., Sinex, D.G., McMullen, N.T. (2001). "Frequency organization and cellular lamination in the medial geniculate body of the rabbit". Hear. Res. 155 (1-2): 113–123. doi:10.1016/S0378-5955(01)00257-X. PMID 11335081. 
  34. ^ Wright, A.A., Rivera, J.J., Hulse, S.H., Shyan, M., Neiworth, J.J. (2000). "Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys". J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129 (3): 291–307. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.129.3.291. PMID 11006902. 
  35. ^ Braun, M., Chaloupka, V. (2005). "Carbamazepine induced pitch shift and octave space representation". Hear. Res. 210 (1-2): 85–92. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2005.05.015. PMID 16181754. 
  36. ^ Fujisaki, W. and Kashino, M. (2002). "The basic hearing abilities of absolute pitch possessors". Acoustic Science and Technology 23: 77–83. doi:10.1250/ast.23.77. Full text
  37. ^ Oakes, W. F. (1955). "An experimental study of pitch naming and pitch discrimination reactions". Journal of Genetic Psychology 86 (2): 237–259. PMID 13263528. 
  38. ^ Tervaniemi, M., Alho, K., Paavilainen, P., Sams, M., and Näätänen, R. (1993). "Absolute pitch and event-related brain potentials". Music Perception 10: 305–316. 
  39. ^ P. K. Gregersen, E. Kowalsky, N. Kohn, and E. Marvin (2000). "Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch". Am. J. Med. Gen. 98: 280–282. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(20010122)98:3<280::AID-AJMG1083>3.0.CO;2-6. 
  40. ^ a b D. Deutsch, T. Henthorn, E. W. Marvin, and H.-S. Xu (2006.). "Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: Prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period (L)a)". J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119 (2): 719–722. doi:10.1121/1.2151799. PMID 16521731. Full Text
  41. ^ a b c Deutsch, D; Deutsch, D (2006). "The enigma of absolute pitch". Acoustics Today 2 (1): 11–19. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31596. PMID 17163519. Full Text
  42. ^ a b c Henthorn, T. & Deutsch, D. (2007). "Ethnicity versus Early Environment: Comment on 'Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch: Teasing apart genes and environment' by Peter K. Gregersen, Elena Kowalsky, Nina Kohn, and Elizabeth West Marvin (2000).". American Journal of Medical Genetics 143A (1): 102–103. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31596. PMID 17163519. Full Text
  43. ^ Zatorre, R.. Absolute Pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function. Full Text
  44. ^ Deutsch, D., Henthorn, T., and Dolson, M. (2004). "Absolute pitch, speech, and tone language: Some experiments and a proposed framework". Music Perception 21: 339–356. doi:10.1525/mp.2004.21.3.339. Full text
  45. ^ Drayna, D., Manichaikul, A., DeLange, M., Snieder, H., and Spector, T. (2001). "Genetic correlates of musical pitch recognition in humans". Science 291 (5510): 1969–1972. doi:10.1126/science.291.5510.1969. PMID 11239158. 
  46. ^ Theusch, E., Basu, A., and Gitschier, J. (2009). "Genome-wide Study of Families with Absolute Pitch Reveals Linkage to 8q24.21 and Locus Heterogeneity". American Journal of Human Genetics 85 (1): 112–119. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.010. PMID 19576568. 
  47. ^ Chin, C. (2003). "The development of absolute pitch". Psychology of Music 31: 155–171. 
  48. ^ Abraham, O. (1901). "Das absolute tonbewußtsein". Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 3: 1–86. Full text Full text (English)
  49. ^ Saffran, J. R. & Griepentrog, G. J. (2001). "Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: Evidence for developmental reorganization". Developmental Psychology 37 (1): 74–85. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.37.1.74. PMID 11206435. Full text
  50. ^ Meyer, M. (1899). "Is the memory of absolute pitch capable of development by training?". Psychological Review 6: 514–516. doi:10.1037/h0069034. Full text
  51. ^ Maryon, E. (1924). The Science of Tone-Color. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Co.. Full text
  52. ^ Levitin, D. J. & Rogers, S. E. (2005). "Absolute pitch: Perception, coding, and controversies". Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1): 29. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.11.007. PMID 15639438. Full text
  53. ^ Takeuchi, A. H. & Hulse, S. H. (1993). "Absolute pitch". Psychological Bulletin 113: 358. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.345. 
  54. ^ Oura, Y. & Eguchi, K. (1982). "Absolute pitch training program for children". Music Education Research 32: 162–171. 
  55. ^ Sakakibara, A. (1999). "A longitudinal study of a process for acquiring absolute pitch". Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 47. 
  56. ^ Sakakibara, A. (2004). "Why are people able to acquire absolute pitch only during early childhood?: Training age and acquisition of absolute pitch". Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 52: 485–496. 
  57. ^ Levitin, D. (1994). "Absolute memory for musical pitch: evidence from production of learned melodies.". Perception and Psychophysics 56 (4): 414–423. PMID 7984397. Full text
  58. ^ Schellenberg, E. Glenn & Trehub, Sandra E. (2003). "Good pitch memory is widespread.". Psychological Science 14 (3): 262–266. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.03432. PMID 12741751. Full text
  59. ^ Blacking, John (1995). "Music and Historical Process in Vendaland". in Reginald Byron (Ed.). Music Culture and Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 136. ISBN 0-226-08829-4. 
  60. ^ Saah, Victoria & Marvin, Elizabeth West (2004). "Absolute memory of learned melodies in children trained by the Suzuki violin method.". Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: 736–739. Full text
  61. ^ Miyazaki, K. (1993). "Absolute pitch as an inability: Identification of musical intervals in a tonal context". Music Perception 11: 55–72. 
  62. ^ Although it is not unknown—Ludwig Wittgenstein had perfect pitch and played the clarinet.
  63. ^ Harris, G. B. (1974). Categorical perception and absolute pitch. Ontario: University of Western Ontario. 
  64. ^ Lenhoff, H. M., Perales, O., & Hickok, G. (2001). "Absolute pitch in Williams syndrome.". Music Perception 18: 491–503. doi:10.1525/mp.2001.18.4.491. 
  65. ^ Heaton, P., Hermelin, B., & Pring, L. (1998). "Autism and pitch processing: A precursor for savant musical ability". Music Perception 15: 291–305. 
  66. ^ Sacks, O. (2007). Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4081-7. 
  67. ^ [4] D. Deutsch (2006), "The Enigma of Absolute Pitch", Acoustics Today.
  68. ^ Fresh Air with Terry Gross, September 11, 2000, interview with Keith Jarrett.
  69. ^ Brady, P. T. (1970). "Fixed-scale mechanism of absolute pitch". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 48 (4): 883–887. doi:10.1121/1.1912227. PMID 5480385. 

External links

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Absolute pitch". Allthough most Wikipedia articles provide accurate information accuracy can not be guaranteed.

Our dream: to make the world's treasury of classical music accessible for everyone. See the about page on how we see the future.
Help us with donations or by making music available!

Contact     Privacy policy    Looking for classical mp3 downloads? We index the free-to-download classical mp3s on the internet.
©2023 Classic Cat - the classical music directory
Sheet Music Plus Featured Sale
Visitor's Favorites

Verdi, G.

Accademia di Santa Cecilia

Mozart, W.A.
Rondo for Piano & Orchestra in A major

Richard Pohl

Mozart, W.A.
Sancta Maria, mater Dei

Singakademie Tsukuba

Haydn, F.J.
String quartet no. 5 in F major

Monica Alianello

Mozart, W.A.
12 piano variations "Je suis Lindor"

Artur Balsam

Strauss, R.
An Alpine Symphony

Deutsches Symphonie Orchester Berlin