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Berceuse: Description

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A lullaby is a soothing song, usually sung to children before they go to sleep, with the intention of speeding that process. As a result they are often simple and repetitive. Lullabies can be found in every human culture and seem to have been used at least from the ancient period.[1]

Contents

Origins of the term

The English term lullaby is thought to come from 'lu lu' or 'la la' sound made by mothers or nurses to calm children, and 'by' or 'bye bye', either another lulling sound, or a term for good night.[2] Until the modern era lullabies were usually only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses' lullaby 'Lalla, Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacte' is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive.[1] In 1072, Turkish writer Mahmud al-Kashgari mention about old Turkish lullabies as 'balubalu' in his book 'Dīwānu l-Luġat al-Turk'. It is also speculated that the term may come from "Lilith-bye" or "Lilith-Abi" (Hebrew for "Lilith, begone"). In the Jewish tradition, Lilith was believed to steal children in the night and was the demon responsible for the death of babies. To guard against Lilith, Jewish people would hang four amulets on nursery walls with the inscription "Lilith - abi!" ["Lilith - begone!"] which is a possible origin of the English word "lullaby." [3]

Classical and contemporary Western composers' influence

Lullabies written by established classical composers are often given the form-name berceuse, which is French for lullaby, or cradle song. The most famous berceuse of all is Johannes Brahms' lied Wiegenlied (cradle song), called Brahms' Lullaby in English. Brahms wrote his "Wiegenlied" for a Bertha Faber, on the occasion of the birth of his second son. The English lyrics are similar to the original German.

Typically a berceuse is in triple metre, or in a compound metre such as 6/8. Tonally most berceuses are simple, often merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies: since the intended effect is to put someone to sleep, wild chromaticism would be somewhat out of character. Another characteristic of the berceuse—for no reason other than convention[citation needed]--is a tendency to stay on the "flat side" --for example the berceuses by Chopin, Liszt and Balakirev are all in D♭.

Frédéric Chopin's Opus 57 is a berceuse for solo piano. Other famous examples of the genre include Maurice Ravel's Berceuse sur le nom de Gabriel Fauré for violin and piano; the Berceuse élégiaque by Ferruccio Busoni; the Berceuse from the opera Jocelyn by Benjamin Godard; the Berceuse by Igor Stravinsky which is featured in the Firebird ballet, and Lullaby for String Quartet by George Gershwin. The English composer Nicholas Maw's orchestral nocturne The World in the Evening is subtitled 'lullaby for large orchestra'. American composer Michael Glenn Williams Berceuse for solo piano (recorded by pianist Roberto Prosseda) uses an ostinato similar to Chopin's but in a 21st century harmonic context. Lullabies are common all around the world.

Many Christmas carols are designed as lullabies for the infant Jesus, the most famous of them being Silent Night. Other famous Christmas lullabies include Away in a Manger and Infant holy, infant lowly.

Contemporary American composer Todd Goodman's Concerto for Bass Clarinet and Orchestra includes a "Berceuse" as the second movement. In terms of pop music, famous lullabies include "Good Night" by The Beatles and "Lullaby (Good Night My Angel)" by Billy Joel.

International lullabies

Asia-Pacific

Asia has its own versions of the lullaby as well. In Tamil (a language of southern India and northern Sri Lanka), a lullaby is called a thaalattu (thal means "tongue"). A melodious sound is created by frequent movement of the tongue at the beginning of the song, hence the name. But most notably is the use of the oyayi in the Philippines, also called huluna in Batangas. In fact, the use of a song in putting a baby to sleep is so popular that almost every mother in the province is said to have composed at least one lullaby for her child. There are also the "Northeastern Cradle Song" etc. in China and the "Itsuki Lullaby" etc. in Japan.....

Australia

Carra Barra Wirra Canna

China

India

Sri Lanka

Indonesia

Japan

Korea

  • Jajang Ga: Jaljara, jaljara, uri agi (Sleep, sleep, our baby)

New Zealand

Hine E Hine - A Maori Slumber Song by Princess Te Rangi Pai Hine E Hine

Philippines

  • Oyayi

Africa

Ethiopian

In Amhairic:"Eshiruru Esururu , babyee Eshiruru, Eshiruru Esururu" , this phrase will be sung over and over again.

Congo

Egypt

نام يا حبيبى نام / وادبحلك جوز حمام

Sleep my lovely baby .. sleep / I'll cook you two Pigeons

South Africa

Is a charming collection of children's music warmed by Africa's rich musical heritage. The folklore and family life in regions like the Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia, and South Africa are reflected in the lullabies' lyrics, as traditional instruments such as the kora, mbira, balaphone, dundun, bamboo flute, talking drum, and guitar heighten the album's authenticity. Stars of the African music scene like Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Ayub Ogada and Stella Chiweshe are just a few of the performers contributing to African Lullaby, a distinctive and worthwhile collection for world music fans and children alike. ~ Heather Phares, All Music Guid

Europe

The European Union government funded project, Lullabies of Europe, which has collected lullabies in European and Turkish languages. A listing of collected lullabies with translations in 7 languages (English, Czech, Danish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Turkish) are listed on the project website *Lullabies of Europe

British lullabies

Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including 'Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting' and may be versions of contemporary lullabies.[2] However, most of those used today date from the seventeenth century onwards. Probably the most famous 'Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top' is thought to have been created by an English immigrant to the 13 colonies to record the native American habit of hanging birch bark cradles from the branches of trees, but is not recorded until the late eighteenth century.[2]

English Lyrics & song samples

Czech lullabies (Ukolébavky)

Czech Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples

Spi, Janíčku, spi (Sleep, Johny, sleep) This playful lullaby was collected in Moravia by František Sušil (1804-1868), a priest and an activist of Czech national revival. He collected songs in Moravia and Silesia as well as in Slavic villages in Austria. This lullaby uses a specific name of the child, Janíček, a familiar form of the very common male name Jan. Nonsense is employed here, as the boy is promised not only a green and a red apple but also a blue one if he falls asleep.

Ukolébavka (Lullaby) This lullaby was published in 1633 in The Informatorium of the School of Infancy by Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670). The book is likely to be the first treatise on the development and educating infants and children up to six in the family. Comenius stressed among other things the necessity of sensory and emotional stimuli at an early age. Thus, he included for mothers and nurses the Czech text and the score of the originally German lullaby by 16th century preacher Mathesius.

Hajej, můj andílku (Sleep, My Little Angel) This is one of the most melodious Czech lullabies, first collected by Karel Jaromír Erben (1811-1870), Czech romantic writer, poet and collector of Czech folk songs and fairy tales. The text refers specifically to the mother rocking her baby.

Halí, dítě (Hullee, baby) This lullaby was collected by František Bartoš (1837-1906), pedagogue and ethnographer who collected Moravian songs. The second line says the carer will leave after the child falls asleep, but in the third line we learn that only to the garden in the valley to pick raspberries.

Halaj, belaj, malučký (Sleep, Sleep, Little One) This lullaby is from the east of Moravia, where the dialect is influenced by the Slovak language, and also folk songs are similar to the Slovak ones from across the border. A boy is promised the essential food for infants, kašička, a smooth mixture made of milk and flour.

Danish lullabies (vuggeviser)

Danish Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples and Visselulle, Min Lire (LucyTuned)

Solen er så rød, mor (The Sun is so Red, Mother) This is a classic Danish lullabies, written in 1920 by the Danish novelist, playwright and poet, Harald Bergstedt (1877-1965), with music composed by classical composer, Carl Nielsen (1865-1931).

Elefantens vuggevise (The Elephant’s Lullaby) This lullaby is considered the most popular lullabies in Denmark. Using exotic animals as theme, the content and the text are simple and easily understood by a child. This was made politically correct in the 1990s: The word, negerdukkedreng (negro boy doll) was changed to kokosnød (coconut). The song was written in 1948 by the Danish writer and poet, Harald H. Lund, with music composed by writer-musician, Mogens Jermiin Nissen (1906-72).

Godnatsang (Goodnight Song) This is popular lullaby, and was composed (lyrics and music) by Sigurd Barrett (1967 - ), pianist, composer and host of a Children’s TV programme in Denmark, and by fellow musician Steen Nikolaj Hansen . Sigurd usually sings this song at the end of his children’s show. This lullaby has sleeping time as theme: The day is over and we must sleep and rest so we will be fresh again in the morning.

Mues sang få Hansemand (Mother’s Song to Little Hans) This lullaby originated from south Jutland, and is very old (year of composition, unknown), it is not well-known in Denmark. This may, in part, be due to the fact that it was written in Jutlandic dialect. The song’s text was written by Marie Thulesen (1878-1924) with music by the Danish musician, Oluf Ring (1884-1946).

Jeg vil tælle stjernerne (I will Count the Stars) This lullaby was written in 1951 by the Danish poet and writer, Halfdan Rasmussen (1915-2002). Rasmussen had written numerous rhymes and jingles, some of which are still being used in Danish beginner classes in public schools (e.g. Halfdans ABC). This lullaby’s music was composed by Hans Dalgaard (1919-81). The song is a simple story of a child who tries to count the stars with his/her fingers and toes.

Dutch Lullaby Slaap kindje Slaap.

French lullabies

The traditional French lullabies are listed here.

German lullabies

Abend wird es wieder
Abendlied "Nun schweigt die Höh" - Kauffmann
Abendlied "Das Tagewerk ist abgetan" - Mendelssohn op. 8/9
Abendlied "Es ist so still geworden" - Schumann op.107/6
Abendlied "Bleib bei uns..." - Rheinberger
Abends, will ich schlafen gehn (Abendsegen)
Abendständchen - Brahms
Abendstille überall
Aber heidschi bumbeidschi
Alles schweiget
Alles still in süßer Ruh - Spohr op.103/4
Am Abend "Die Sonne sank" - Reinecke
Bald ist es wieder Nacht
Bei der Wiege "Schlummre umd träume" - Mendelssohn op. 47/6
Der Tag ist längst geschieden - Reinecke
Das Tagewerk ist abgetan - Mendelssohn op. 8/9
Denn er hat seinen Engeln - Mendelssohn
Der Abend schleiert Flur und Hain - Schubert D 414
Der Abendstern "Du lieblicher Stern" - Schumann op. 79/1r
Der Mond ist aufgegangen
Der Sandmann "Zwei feine Stieflein hab ich an" - Schumann op. 79/13
Der Wächter tutet in sein Horn
Des Kindes Gebet "Wenn die kleinen Kinder beten" - Reger op.76/22
Die Blümelein, sie schlafen - Brahms WoO 31/4
Die Mutter singt "Eia popeia, das ist ein altes Lied" - Rheinberger op.152/30
Die Sonne sank - Reinecke
Du lieblicher Stern - Schumann op. 79/1
Eia popeia, das ist ein altes Lied - Rheinberger op.152/30
Eia popeia - Spohr op.25/1
Es geht durch alle Lande
Es ist so still geworden - Schumann op.107/6
Es mahnt der Wald - Schubert D 527 op.24/2
Es schaukeln die Winde - Humperdinck
Es war, als hätt der Himmel - Schumann op.39/5
Es wird scho glei dumpa
Frieden der Nacht "Der Tag ist längst geschieden" - Reinecke
Geist der Liebe "Der Abend schleiert Flur und Hain" - Schubert D 414
Gut Nacht, mein feines Lieb
Guten Abend, gut Nacht - Brahms
Guter Mond, du gehst so stille
Hört, ihr Herrn, und lasst euch sagen
In stiller Nacht - Brahms WoO 33/42
Kinderwacht "Wenn fromme Kindlein schlafen gehn" - Schumann op.79/12
Kindlein mein
Kommt gezogen, kleine Vögel - Taubert op.68
Maria sitzt am Rosenhag - Reger op.76/52
Mariä Wiegenlied "Maria sitzt am Rosenhag" - Reger op.76/52
Mondnacht "Es war, als hätt der Himmel" - Schumann op.39/5
Müde bin ich, geh zur Ruh'
Nachtgesang "O gib, vom weichen Pfühle" - Zelter
Nun ruhen alle Wälder
Nun schweigt die Höh - Kauffmann
Nun wollen wir singen das Abendlied
O gib, vom weichen Pfühle -Zelter
O wie wohl ist mir am Abend
Puppenwiegenlied "Schlaf, Püppchen, schlaf" - Reinecke op.75/8
Sandmännchen „Die Blümelein, sie schlafen“ - Brahms WoO 31/4
Schlaf in guter Ruh - Taubert op.27/5
Schlaf wohl, du Himmelsknabe du - Reimann
Schlaf, Herzenssöhnchen - Weber op.13/2
Schlaf, Kindchen balde - Curschmann op.5/4
Schlaf, Kindelein, süße
Schlaf, Kindlein, schlaf
Schlaf, Püppchen, schlaf - Reinecke op.75/8
Schlaf, mein Kindelein
Schlafe, mein Liebchen - Schreker op.7/1
Schlafe, mein Prinzchen, schlaf ein
Schlafe, schlafe holder, süßer Knabe - Schubert D 498 op.98
Schlaflied "Es mahnt der Wald" - Schubert D 527 op.24/2
Schlummre umd träume - Mendelssohn op. 47/6
Shlof main fegele
So schlaf in Ruh - Curschmann op.9/3
Still, still, still, weil’s Kindlein schlafen will
Vöglein fliegt dem Nestchen zu - Cornelius op.1/3
Wann die Kinder schlafen ein - Reinecke op.37/5
Weißt du, wieviel Sternlein stehen
Wenn die kleinen Kinder beten - Reger op.76/22
Wenn fromme Kindlein schlafen gehn - Schumann op.79/12
Wer hat die schönsten Schäfchen
Wie sich der Äuglein kindlicher Himmel - Schubert D 498 op.105/2
Wiegenlied "Alles still in süßer Ruh" - Spohr op.103/4
Wiegenliedchen "Schlafe, mein Liebchen" - Schreker op.7/1
Wiegenlied der Hirten "Schlaf wohl, du Himmelsknabe du" - Reimann
Wiegenlied "Eia popeia" - Spohr op.25/1
Wiegenlied "Kommt gezogen, kleine Vögel“ - Taubert op.68
Wiegenlied "Schlaf in guter Ruh" - Taubert op.27/5
Wiegenlied "Schlaf, Kindchen, balde" - Curschmann op.5/4
Wiegenlied "Schlafe, schlafe holder, süßer Knabe" - Schubert D 498 op.98
Wiegenlied „Vöglein fliegt dem Nestchen zu“ - Cornelius op.1/3
Wiegenlied „Wie sich der Äuglein kindlicher Himmel“ - Schubert D 498 op.105/2
Zwei feine Stieflein hab ich an - Schumann op. 79/13

Greek lullabies (Νανουρίσματα)

Greek Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples and LucyTuned version

Νάνι μού το νάνι νάνι (Nani Mine, Nani Nani) This lullaby originates from the Island of Kalymnos, one of the Dodecanese Islands situated in the south-eastern Aegean Sea. This island combines the beauty of the mountains, the scents of oregano and thyme together with crystal waters. In this particular lullaby, the lyrics are influenced by the beauty of nature. Kalymnos is also famous for sponge fishing and the production of olive oil. This explains the references to olive trees and the sun, which is essential to islanders. Apart from the words nani-nani, we also have the sound e e e in this lullaby, a very common and popular motive of Greek lullabies. As in all traditional Greek lullabies its year of origin is unknown as well as the composer and the lullaby’s lyricist.

Νάνι νάνι το παιδί μου (Nani nani my child) This lullaby originates from mountainous Kastoria, a Greek city situated in Western Macedonia. Many crops are cultivated in the region which is especially famous for its vineyards, as mentioned in the lullaby. Livestock breeding is also very common there, which explains references to the lamb, goat and sheepcote. Another interesting element here is the use of diminutives, e.g. little sheep, little goat, etc. Diminutives are used in the Greek language to indicate not only smallness but also deep affection. As in all traditional Greek lullabies its year of origin is unknown as well as the composer and the lullaby’s lyricist.

Ύπνε, που παίρνεις τα μικρά (Sleep, who takes little ones) This lullaby, originally created on the Island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) is heard all over Greece with numerous variations. The element of Sleep (Ύπνος) is central. In many Greek lullabies they address Sleep, who is kindly asked to take the baby in his arms and help it go to sleep. According to Greek mythology Ύπνος was the God of sleep. His mother was the Night and his sons were the Dreams. As in all traditional Greek lullabies its year of origin is unknown as well as the composer and the lullaby’s lyricist.

Ύπνε μου, επάρε μού το (My Sleep, take it from me) This lullaby originates from Southern Italy. Greek-speaking populations have lived in that part of Italy since the 8th century B.C., when the first Greek colonies were established in the regions of Salento, Calabria, Taras and Metapontio. These areas have a large production of roses, which somehow explains the references to roses and their assortments in the lullaby. The word santoulos is of Italian origin and means godfather.

Κοιμάται ο ήλιος στα βουνά (The sun sleeps on the mountains) This lullaby is of Greek origin. Its place of origin is the island of Aegina situated near the city of Athens. Passed on to the island of Cyprus it was converted to the Cypriot dialect and also some lyrics were added. The original Greek lullaby had only the first paragraph. There is no information of its year of origin as well as of the composer and the lullaby’s lyricist. We also do not know how it was introduced and changed in Cyprus.

Irish lullabies

  • 'Lullaby' aka Suan (song), this lullaby also known as SUAN in the Irish language was written by Irish songwriter, Liz Madden. The Irish version appears on the 2003 album 'Dream-Teller' by RUA. A solo piano version and separate vocal version was used as the main theme in 2009 for the Irish short film 'Lullaby' produced by the Irish Network Partnership. An English language version was also recorded in 2009 by the songwriter herself.
  • The Provo's Lullaby is an Irish Rebel Music song done in the form of a lullaby. It is not usually sung for children.

Italian lullabies (Ninnananne)

Italian Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples

Nana Bobo (Nana Bobò) This is a beautiful and very ancient lullaby of the Veneto lagoon. Balkan and Byzantine influences are evident in the structure of the song. The lullaby singer is wishing health and wealth to a beloved child who doesn’t want to sleep. The mother is not present. This lullaby has several more lines but they contain words in many dialects. Nana is a word meaning ‘sleep’. Bobò is a term of endearment, with no specific meaning.

Fai la Nanna, Mio Simone (Go to sleep, my Simone) Go to sleep, my Simone is an example of the Italian old folk lullabies which depicts a feeling of the simple way of living in the old days. This is a lullaby from Tuscany and shows an initial exuberant tone followed by the sweeter pace of the cradle song. The mother is with her baby boy and she envisions his future following the father’s pattern in life and work. Other women are in the square talking and walking pleasantly, but she is at home cooking the focaccia bread and looking after her baby. The lullaby’s opening is exuberant and loud and the text is apparently very remote from what is usually a subject for a baby going to sleep. Then it takes a more calm and deep tone.

Stella Stellina (Star, Little Star) There is no indication on when and where this lullaby was created. It shows standard Italian and is one of the most popular cradle songs, used all over Italy. When Italians aged seventy and over have been asked if they have heard this song in their infancy, their response has been positive. So, we believe that Stella Stellina can be considered to be quite an old lullaby.

Le Nininône Cuant ch'in cîl a ven le gnot e chi sês aí bessôi... When the sky is getting dark and you are there alone is the lullaby which describes the grand mother who goes to give the last kiss to child since he close his eyes, then slowly she swich off the light. This very sweet song is one part of the very rich folk songs of the friulians and the lyrics are in friulian, an old roman language from the region of Udine. To learn the lyrics and knowing the melody go here

Fate la nanna, coscine di pollo (Go to bed-byes, little chicken legs) Italian mothers know this lullaby, which is used regularly with no text variations. The little chicken legs can easily be those of little babies and the skirt refers to the time when many mothers could dedicate their attention to activities such as producing pieces of crochet for their babies.

This is a lullaby from Tuscany and naming a baby “little chicken legs” is an example of the great sense of humour of people from this region. Go to bed-byes, little chicken legs is very popular all over Italy.

Ninnananna dei suoni e dei colori (Lullaby of sounds and colours) This is a contemporary lullaby, just composed for the European Union Lingua project “Languages from the Cradle”. It is in a standard Italian and is dedicated to a baby boy and a baby girl who, while sleeping, or half-sleeping with his/her parents, explore a dream world made of beautiful colours and sounds.

Romanian lullabies (Cântece de leagăn)

Romanian Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples

Culcă-te, puiuţ micuţ (Go to asleep my tiny baby) This is an old lullaby from Western and Central România (Cluj, Bihor, Năsăud ) still sung by mothers living in the countryside. It can be heard in different versions. It is also mentioned in the school textbooks as sung by a great Romanian folk singer, Maria Tănase who lived between 1913-1963 and made a great contribution to the acknowledgement of the Romanian folklore abroad.

Nani, nani, puişor (Nani, Nani My Sweet Little Baby!) This anonymous lullaby is also very old and sung in all the regions of Romania.

It begins with the typical words for suggesting ‘sleep’ to the baby: nani, nani, and with the diminutive words for ‘midday’: prânz, prânzişor.

Culcă-mi-te mititel (Go to sleep my little one) This is also an old, archaic cradle song from Muntenia region (Southern Romania). The mother wishes her baby to grow and be able to take care of the sheep and lambs and ducklings in the fields. Little children in the countryside always play in the fields among little animals and flowers. They also take care of these animals when they grow up. Mititel, măricel, bobocei, ghiocei, mieluşei, brebenei are one-word diminutives in Romanian in order to compare the baby’s tiny environment with the natural elements which are also tiny and cute.

Nani, nani, puiu’ mamii (Nani, Nani, Your Mother’s Baby) This is another very old cradle song which has its origin in one of the south regions of Romania, Oltenia. It is short and only repeats specific words for inducing peace and sleep to the baby: nani is a typical mimetic word very often used in a lullaby; maica means my mum. In Romanian, it is common to address a baby by the words my mum to show affection.

Haia, haia, mică baia (Haia, Haia, Tiny is the Bath) This is an old song from Banat region (Western part of Romania), using the numbers, which is not common in lullabies. In this lullaby, cuculică is a diminutive, mimetic word meaning a kind of tiny birdie/cuckoo; and lululică is another diminutive expressing the rocking of the baby.

Spanish lullabies: the Andalusian nana

Lullabies in Andalusia (nanas in Spanish) are closely related to a tradition of Castilian origin with ancient musical and textual components, and are sometimes regarded as a major cultural symbol.[5] The Andalusian nana has specific musicologic and linguistic characteristics, as follows: [6]

  • The nana is often a short song, with just one strophe of four verses. Sometimes, further strophes are added with the same melody.
  • The melodies are melancholic, as they are sung, usually with many melismas.
  • Lyrics often speak about fear and the cradle, as well as its absence or the absence of the madre (mother).
  • The beginning of many nanas is similar, then change and expand on variations of other songs, or as a result of improvisation.
  • Nanas often start and end in the first tonal grade of its melodic organization.
  • The most frequent melodic organizations are established around the ancient Mi note, with different variations as the Spanish Gamut (32,2% of the nanas registered by the Andalusian Musical Documents Center) and the Andalusian Scale (27,4%). They are also found in minor Mi (22,5%).
  • The harmonic cadence always ends in the so-called Andalusian cadence, with the same range than the general Spanish popular music.
  • The rhythm is most often isometric and isorrythmic, binary, tertiary or free.

Polish lullabies (kołysanki)

Aromanian

Cântic di sârmâniţâ (interpreted by Nicu Alifantis)

Russia

  • Cossack Lullaby: Spi mladenets, moy prekrasnuy (Sleep, baby, my dear one)
  • Traditional Russian lullaby: Little Grey Wolf (notably used in the film Tale of Tales)
Russian Transliteration English translation

Баю-баюшки-баю,
Не ложися на краю.
Придёт серенький волчок,
Он ухватит за бочок
И утащит во лесок
Под ракитовый кусток.

Bayu-bayushki-bayu,
Ne lozhisya na krayu.
Pridyot serenkiy volchok,
On ukhvatit za bochok
I utashchit vo lesok
Pod rakitovy kustok.

Baby, baby, rock-a-bye
On the edge you mustn't lie
Or the little grey wolf will come
And will nip you on the tum,
Tug you off into the wood
Underneath the willow-root.

Yiddish

Portugal (Canção de Embalar)

  • Todos os patinhos
  • Dorme bébé
  • Vitinho

Middle East

Arabic

Arabs have many lullabies and they vary across the Arab countries. Some include

  • يلا تنام يلا تنام لاذبحلك طير الحمام
  • ماما زمانها جايا
  • دوها يا دوها و الكعبة بنوها
  • في العراق - دللووول يالولد يبني دللوووول

nini ya moumou tay tib 3 chana ila matab 3shana itib 3cha jirana ------ in morroco

Armenia

Well-known Armenian lullabies are Nana, Loorik, Roorik, Ayer, Heyroor and others. The main theme of a lullaby is the love for the child. Various subjects and feelings are expressed in Armenian lullabies, when the mother is rocking the cradle and singing, forgetting her daily burden, remembering past loves, embracing touching memories. Doing so, she is also passing past lamentations to the next generation, thus creating a bridge between generations, as well as instilling a love for the homeland.

Oror Jojk em Kapel (I Bind the Cradle); Collected by Mihran Toumajan (student of Komitas Vardapet); from Armenian Lullabies by Hasmik Harutyunyan.

I bind the cradle to the plum tree
My bundled little lamb rocks and turns
Eh, my darling, eh . . .
The cradle must be of gold, the arch of silver
The binding will be of delicate thread
Eh, my soul, eh . . .
I rock my little darling to sleep with the fragrance of roses
And awaken my dear with the nightingale’s song
Rock, rock, I put you in the cradle to sleep
To sleep and to have a thousand wonders
I rock the cradle—push and pull, push and pull, sweet breeze, push and pull,
Push and pull, sweet wind, push and pull,
Bring sweet sleep to my child.

An Armenian lullaby (YouTube).

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani Lullaby "Lay-Lay" by Shovket Alekperova

Şirin şirin yat ay bala
Boya başa çat ay bala
Səndə bir gün öz səsini el səsinə qat ay bala
Sənə deyir lay-lay...
Hər otən quş hər otən çay
Bu gözəl şən anamız vətən
Hər şöhrətim şanım sənsən
Candan ayrı canım sənsən
Nə təmizdir qül nəfəsin
Sənə telli bir çəmansən
Sənə deyir lay-lay
Hər otən quş hər otən çay
Bu gözəl şən anamız vətən
Yat ay quzum şirin şirin
Həyat sənin dövran sənin
Qayğısıyla boy atırsan
Qucağında bu vətənin

TRANSLATION

Sleep very very sweet my baby
Grow up, become big and clever my baby
One day you'll add your voice to the voice of universe, my baby
Every passing bird, every river
Says lay-lay to you my baby
In our most joyful and beautiful motherland
You are my proud and joy
You are my soul that is within my own soul
Your breath is so clean and innocent
Like the light wind in the field

Turkish lullabies (Ninniler)

Turkish Lyrics & song samples or English Lyrics & song samples and LucyTuned version

Uyusun da büyüsün (As She Sleeps Let My Baby Grow) This lullaby falls into the largest category of Turkish lullabies, those expressing wishes and desires. Such lullabies mostly articulate the desire for the baby to go to sleep. They generally express the mother’s desire for various things for her child, including material benefits such as toys, clothing, food and drink, as well as long life, good deeds and a good career when she grows up. In the first stanza of this particular lullaby, the mother wishes a healthy upbringing for her baby, using the onomatopoeic expression tıpısh tıpısh to convey the sound of a baby’s walk. In the second stanza, the mother describes the baby with her hands and arms decorated with henna. In the old days, it was very common for Turkish people to apply henna on the hands of a baby as a way of blessing the child. In the last stanza, the mother expresses her wishes and expectations from a relative. She asks for clothing from an aunt.

Babanın Ninnisi (Daddy’s Lullaby) This is a modern lullaby composed by Özge İLAYDA. Although modern, it still has the characteristic traditional lullaby phrases such as hu hu and e-e-e.

Dandini Dandini Dastana (Dandini Dandini Dastana) The first stanza of this lullaby is very well known by almost everyone in Turkey. It may be sung with changes in the first or the following lines. At first glance, the first stanza may seem strange, as its meaning is quite irrelevant to a baby or a lullaby concept. However, according to some sources (Karabaş, 1999:62), it is metaphorical: dana “calf” stands for the son, bostan “vegetable garden” stands for life, bostancı “gardener” stands for the father, and lahana “cabbage” stands for a girl not approved by the boy’s mother. In this stanza the mother is asking the father (her husband) to keep that girl away.

In the second stanza, the mother praises and adores her baby, likening him to the moon. She invokes God’s name and wants Him to keep the baby away from the Evil Eye. In Turkish lullabies praising the beauty of the baby is a very common subject. The mother uses similes comparing her baby’s lips with cherries, and his/her eyebrows with the crescent moon or a pen. For the mother, the baby is more beautiful than anything, even more beautiful than angels. This concept is well reflected in one famous Turkish saying: “Even a porcupine calls her offspring my silk-feathered baby”.

In the last two stanzas, the mother expresses her wishes for her child’s future, in relation to marriage and career. This is another common subject in Turkish lullabies.

Sen bir güzel meleksin (You are a Beautiful Angel) This lullaby is more urban than rural in style. Apart from praising, this lullaby is a good example of a mother’s kind-heartedness. In the first stanza, the mother likens her baby to an angel, a flower, the apple of her eye, and in the next stanza, she talks about her home as full of love and affection. She tries to comfort the baby.

Adalardan çıktım yola (I Left the Islands on Foot) Also known as Bebeğin beşiği çamdan (the baby’s cradle is of pine), this is a common lullaby throughout Turkey, but particularly in the eastern provinces. It originated in the nomadic life, which was a common life-style in Anatolia in the past. The lullaby is based on a sad story.

In time, many versions of the lullaby developed. The islands referred to in this version of the lullaby, were actually Elmalı in its original form, which is a town near Antalya, the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

Iran

Israel

A Song by Avraham Shlonsky

נומה, נומה, בן יקיר לי, סהר ממרום על עריסתך משגיח ורוקם חלום.

נומה, נומה, בן יקיר לי, עד יאיר היום. ומתכלת השמיים אור יביא הלום.

כל האילנות ידומו, חלומות זהב ירקומו. נומה ילד, נום, עד יאיר היום.

אור של בוקר, אור של חסד, שמש וקרניו, והגמדים ירדו בו כבסולם זהב.

הסולם רגליו בארץ, וראשו ברום. נומה, נומה, בן יקיר לי, עד יאיר היום...


There is another Hebrew lullaby by אהובה צדוק

נומי נומי ילדתי נומי נומי נים

נומי נומי חמדתי נומי נומי נים

אבא הלך הלך לעבודה הלך הלך אבא

ישוב ישוב עם צאת הלבנה 

יביא לך מתנה

נומי נומי ילדתי נומי נומי נים

נומי נומי חמדתי נומי נומי נים

North America

Summertime

A famous lullaby is "Summertime" from the Porgy and Bess musical of 1935. Sometimes it is also referred to as the Gershwin Lullaby. Although many of the jazz improvizations of this song have "wild chromaticism", the original is quite soothing, and somewhat slow and melancholy, in natural minor. Gershwin was actually inspired to write the song after hearing a Ukrainian lullaby, Oi Khodyt Son Kolo Vikon (A Dream Passes by the Window) in 1926. The recurring gentle rocking back and forth between A-minor 6th and E-seventh, in the orchestral strings version, is simultaneously sad and comforting.

Summertime, and the living is easy
Fish are jumping, and the cotton is high
Your daddy's rich, and your ma is good looking
So hush little baby, don't you cry.
One of these mornings, you're gonna rise up singing
You're gonna spread your wings and take the sky
But till that morning, there is nothing can harm you
With your daddy and mommy standing by.

All the Pretty Little Horses

Another famous lullaby is "All the Pretty Little Horses" which many children simply know by the first three words of the lyrics: "Hush a bye". It was originally sung by an African American slave who could not take care of her baby because she was too busy taking care of her master's child. She would therefore sing this song to her master's child (Lacy 1986, p. 76). Originally, the lyrics were "birds and butterflies, peck at his eyes" but were changed to "birds and butterflies, flutter 'round his eyes" to make the lullaby less violent for younger children. Like "Summertime" this song is also played in natural minor.

Hush-a-bye, don't you cry,
Go to sleepy little baby.
When you wake, you shall have,
All the pretty little horses,
Blacks and bays, dapples and greys,
Go to sleepy you little baby.
Hush-a-bye, don't you cry,
Go to sleepy little baby.
Hush-a-bye, don't you cry,
Go to sleepy little baby,
When you wake, you shall have,
All the pretty little horses.
Way down yonder, down in the meadow,
There's a poor wee little lamby.
The bees and the butterflies pickin' at its eyes,
The poor wee thing cried for her mammy.
Hush-a-bye, don't you cry,
Go to sleepy little baby.
When you wake, you shall have,
All the pretty little horses.

Mexico

  • Mexican Lullaby: Mira la luna
  • Duérmete mi niño

South and Central America

Argentina

ARRORRÓ

slightly variations of this song occur in all latin-america and Spain.

Arrorró mi niño
arrorro mi amor
arrorro pedazo
de mi corazón
Este niño lindo
que nació de día
quiere que lo lleven
a la dulcería
Duérmete mi niño
duérmete mi amor
duérmete pedazo
de mi corazón
Este niño lindo
que nació de noche
quiere que lo lleven
a pasear en coche.
Duérmete mi niño
duérmete mi amor
duérmete pedazo
de mi corazón.
    • En Argentina:

Arrorró mi nena/a, arrorró mi sol, Arrorró pedazo de mi corazón Este/a nene/a lindo/a se quiere dormir. Y el pícaro sueño no quiere venir...

Brazil

There are two main lullaby songs in Brazil, with minor modifications according to the region of the country where it is sung: Boi da Cara Preta (Black Faced Ox) and Nana Neném (Sleep, Dear Baby). Both are strongly influenced by the Portuguese past of Brazil.

Boi da Cara Preta Boi, boi, boi, Boi da cara preta, Pega essa menina que tem medo de careta!

Boi, boi, boi, Boi da cara preta, Pega esse menino que tem medo de careta

Black Faced Ox (literal English translation) Black, black, black Black Faced Ox Take this girl who has a fear of scary face

Black, black, black Black Faced Ox Take this boy who has a fear of scary face

Nana, Neném Nana, Neném Que a cuca vem pegar, Papai foi na roça, Mamãe foi passear.

Bicho Papão, Sai de cima do telhado, Deixa o meu neném Dormir sossegado.

Sleep, Baby Sleep, Dear Baby, Because the Cuca is going to catch you, Daddy went to the farm, Mom went out for a walk.

Bicho Papão, Get away from the roof, Let my dear baby Sleep in peace.

External links

Notes

  1. ^ a b I. Opie and P. Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd edn., 1997), p. 6.
  2. ^ a b c H. Carpenter and M. Prichard, The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 326.
  3. ^ http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1513/whats-the-story-on-lilith-adams-first-wife
  4. ^ http://www.thebards.net/music/lyrics/An_Irish_Lullaby.shtml
  5. ^ Crivillé i Bargalló, Josep: Prólogo a la nana andaluza . Op.cit. Centro de Documentación Musical de Andalucía, Granada, 1990
  6. ^ Subirats, Mª Angeles: La Nana Andaluza: Estudio etno-musicológico , Centro de Documentación Musical de Andalucía, Granada, 1990. ISBN 84-87769-01-2. pag. 237

References



This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Berceuse". Allthough most Wikipedia articles provide accurate information accuracy can not be guaranteed.


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