|Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart KV1 459|
Piano concerto no. 19 in F majorPiano concerto in F major. Time: 28'00.
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The Piano Concerto No. 19 in F major, KV. 459 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was written at the end of 1784: Mozart's own catalogue of works records that it was completed on 11 December (works surrounding it in the Köchel catalogue are KV. 458, the "Hunt" quartet and KV. 464, the fifth of the Haydn set). It is occasionally known as the "second coronation concerto" on account of Mozart playing it on the occasion of the coronation of Leopold II in Frankfurt am Main in October 1790. The autograph is held by the Jagiellónska Library, Kraków. The first edition was produced by Johann Andre of Offenbach in 1794, and Breitkopf & Härtel produced an edition in 1800. Like all of Mozart's concerti it is in three movements:
The orchestra opens quietly with a prelude of 71 bars (Hutchings incorrectly states 72), wherein six orchestral themes are exposed (A-F in Hutchings' notation; see main article on Mozart Piano Concertos for a discussion of this notation), of which the first, rhythmical and with a military ambiance, becomes increasingly important as the movement progresses; indeed, its insistent rhythm dominates the entire movement. The piano then answers with its own exposition of 116 bars, starting with A and B, then introducing some new material (themes x and y), with free passages of arpeggios and scales: the scheme is ABxAyA Free D Free. The orchestra then returns on its own with its short first ritornello (22 bars) that introduces another theme, G: the scheme is AGAG. In the ensuing middle section (35 bars) yet another orchestral theme is introduced, H: the scheme is HAHAHA. This is followed by a long recapitulation, also of 116 bars, where, as is typical of his concertos, Mozart rapidly departs from a simple repetition of the previous material: the scheme is ABAyADA Free. Finally, the movement is brought to a close with the final ritornello (36 bars): AGA Cadenza (Mozart's own exists) EF - hence the two closing themes of the prelude are finally heard again at the end.
The analysis is based on, and expanded from the scheme of Hutchings, by reference to the score. Girdlestone's implied scheme differs somewhat (for example, he recognises seven themes in the prelude: the extra one is identified as the "subsidiary theme" below).
72-79 A (piano)
First Ritornello (orchestra)
189-194 A, in C major
211-212 H (piano), in a minor
247-254 A (piano), in F major
Final Ritornello (orchestra apart from cadenza)
A (first appearance: bar 1)
B (first appearance: bar 16)
C (first appearance: bar 24)
D (first appearance: bar 37)
E (first appearance: bar 54)
F (first appearance: bar 64)
x (first appearance: bar 95)
y (first appearance: bar 130; below is the piano version at 138)
G (first appearance: bar 194)
H (first appearance: bar 211)
This gentle movement is in a condensed sonata form, with an ABAB structure (ie like a sonata form without the middle section). Each of the two major themes, the first major, the second minor, is broadly presented and varied; Mozart slightly varies the second presentation in B to avoid exact repetition. The movement is closed with highly characteristic use of the woodwind in quiet rising scales.
1-10 A (orchestra)
86-95 A (piano first, then both), treated in a varied way
150-155 scales in orchestra
A (first appearance: bar 1)
The movement, described by Girdlestone as the concerto's strongest movement , is in a broadly rondo form. In contrast to the languid second movement, the theme is sharply defined and introduced by the piano, quickly followed by the winds. The theme establishes the main motif of this piece: quaver-quaver-crotchet, quaver-quaver-crotchet. The two quavers in each group of three notes are of identical pitch. This motif is in fact used very frequently throughout the piece, a technique similar to the motif development used by Beethoven in his Symphony No.5 First Movement. The orchestra then comes up with the second theme - a scalar passage which is then presented in a contrapuntal fashion. The piano remains silent during this time. Then the piano makes its re-entrance and starts off with runs. The orchestra provides continuous accompaniment with the main motif and different themes. At one point the opening material returns and the second theme is played again , though not in the same pitch or with the same instrumentation. The treatment is contrapuntal but somewhat looser than previously, the piano now playing along with the orchestra. A sweeping passage by piano and then by orchestra leads into the cadenza which provides a temporary break from the relentless exhilaration of the movement. After the cadenza comes the coda where the main theme is built up bit by bit to a conclusion. The piece closes with three emphatic chords played by all instruments, including piano. All in all this is one of Mozart's most miraculous movements - the balance between the extreme light-heartedness of the melodies and the formal complexity of the motifs and the counterpoint being simply astounding.
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