By the middle of the Romantic period, piano quintets combining a piano with a string quartet emerged as an important form of musical expression. Robert Schumann'sPiano Quintet (1842), although not strictly the first chamber work written for this combination of instruments, was immediately popular and widely imitated, virtually creating "a new genre, with a specific aura of Romanticism."  The piano quintets of Franz Berwald (1853, 1857), Joachim Raff (1862), Johannes Brahms (1864), César Franck (1882), and Antonín Dvořák (No. 2, 1887) fostered the dominance of Schumann's model.Hermann Goetz's piano quintet (1874), however, is scored for the old-fashioned combination of piano, violin, viola, cello and double-bass.
In the twentieth-century, notable piano quintets along the lines of the Schumann model were produced by composers with strong connections to the Romantic idiom, including Gabriel Fauré (1905, 1921), Edward Elgar (1918) and Dmitri Shostakovich (1940).
Other composers of piano quintets have experimented with novel combinations of instruments. George Rochberg's piano quintet (1975) calls for the conventional combination piano and string quartet, but his Electrikaleidoscope (1972) is scored for flute, clarinet, violin, cello & piano/electric piano.
List of Compositions for Piano Quintet
The following is a partial list of compositions for piano quintet. All works are scored for for piano and string quartet unless otherwise noted.