|Franz Joseph Haydn H 1:94|
Symphony no. 94 "Surprise"Symphony in G major. 1791. Time: 24'00.
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The Symphony No. 94 in G major (Hoboken 1/94) is the second of the twelve so-called London symphonies (numbers 93-104) written by Joseph Haydn. It is usually called by its nickname, the Surprise Symphony, although in German it is more often referred to as the Symphony "mit dem Paukenschlag" ("with the kettledrum stroke").
Date of composition
Haydn wrote the symphony in 1791 in London for a concert series he gave during the first of his visits to England (1791–1792). The premiere took place at the Hanover Square Rooms in London on March 23, 1792, with Haydn leading the orchestra seated at a fortepiano.
The Surprise Symphony is scored for a Classical-era orchestra consisting of two each of flutes, oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, plus timpani, and the usual string section consisting of first and second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses.
A typical performance of the Surprise Symphony lasts about 23 minutes.
Nickname (the Surprise)
Haydn's music contains many jokes, and the 'Surprise' Symphony includes probably the most famous of all: a sudden fortissimo chord at the end of an otherwise piano opening theme in the variation-form second movement. The music then returns to its original quiet dynamic, as if nothing had happened, and the ensuing variations do not repeat the joke.
In his old age Haydn was asked by his biographer Griesinger whether he had written this "surprise" of the Andante in order to waken the audience:
The work was popular at its premiere. The Woodfall's Register critic wrote:
The Morning Herald critic wrote:
The symphony is still popular today and is frequently performed and recorded.
Like all of Haydn's "London" symphonies, the work is in four movements, marked as follows:
The first movement has a lyrical 3/4 introduction that precedes a highly rhythmic main section in 6/8 time. As with much of Haydn's work, it is written in so-called "monothematic" sonata form; that is, the movement to the dominant key in the exposition is not marked by a "second theme".
The second, "surprise", movement, the Andante, is a theme and variations in 2/4 time in the subdominant key of C major. The theme is in two eight-bar sections, each repeated. Haydn sets up the surprise, which occurs at the end of the repeat of the first section, by making the repeat pianissimo with pizzicato in the lower strings. Four variations of the theme follow, starting with embellishment in sixteenth notes by the first violins, moving to a stormy variation in C minor with trumpets and timpani, then solos for the first oboist and flautist, and concluding with a sweeping and lyrical forte repeat in triplets. In the coda section, the opening notes are stated once more, this time reharmonized with gently dissonant diminished seventh chords over a tonic pedal.
The third movement is a minuet and trio, in ternary form in the tonic key (G major). The tempo, Allegro molto, or very quickly, is of note since it marks the historical shift away from the old minuet (at a slower, i.e. danceable, tempo) toward the scherzo; by the time of his last quartets Haydn had started to mark his minuets presto.
The fourth movement is a characteristically rhythmic, energetic and propulsive Haydn finale. The movement is written in sonata rondo form with the opening bars appearing both at the beginning and in the middle of the development section. The stirring coda emphasizes the timpani.
Toward the end of his active career Haydn wove the theme of the second movement into an aria of his oratorio The Seasons (1801), in which the bass soloist depicts a plowman whistling Haydn's tune as he works.
The same theme is also frequently adapted for the purpose of teaching musical beginners; see Papa Haydn.
The composer Charles Ives wrote a parody of the second movement in 1909, penning the words "Nice little easy sugar-plum sounds" under the opening notes. Ives was unhappy with concert audiences who unadventurously resisted difficult modern music--as is shown by other words in his parody: "Nice sweety silk bonnet melodies ... nice pretty perfumed sounds for the dress circle cushion chai[r] ears." Since the opening notes of Haydn's second movement are very simple, they were a suitable choice for Ives's purpose..
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Symphony_No._94_(Haydn)". Allthough most Wikipedia articles provide accurate information accuracy can not be guaranteed.
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