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Performers overview

This is a list of the artists that are included on our site. The number between brackets is the number of their works that we list.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
A Far Cry (29)
Aachen Domchor (1)
Accademia di Santa Cecilia (3)
Accardo, Salvatore (1)
Adler, James (1)
Agosti, Guido (7)
Aguiar, Gabriela (6)
Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin (4)
Akademisches Orchester der Universität Stuttgart (11)
Akademisches Orchestra Freiburg (3)
Akademisk Orkester og Kor (5)
Akeynikova, Xenia (8)
Alarie, Pierrette (1)
Albeneri Trio (2)
Alberti, Werner (1)
Albright, Charlie (11)
Alfera, Mike (2)
Alianello, Monica (182)
All-Union Radio and Central TV Orchestra (1)
Allegro Chamber Society (1)
Alma Musica sextet (1)
Amadeus Chamber Orchestra (5)
Amato, Pasquale (5)
Ambrosini, Jean-Claude (13)
Ambrus, Irene (1)
Amedeo Modigliani Quartet (3)
American Arts Chorus (7)
American Opera Society (1)
Amici Cantores (15)
Amoretti, Alessandro (4)
Anatone, Richard (17)
Anderson, John (3)
Anima (3)
Anraku, Mariko (1)
Antique Ensemble (1)
Antonov, Avguste (8)
Antonova, Elizaveta I. (1)
Anzaldúa, Ahmed (7)
Aoede Consort (7)
Aprahamian, Medea (4)
April, David (38)
Arad, Avner (1)
Arié, Raphaël (4)
Arrau, Claudio (5)
Artôt de Padilla, Lola (1)
Assimakopoulos, Pantelis (27)
Attademo, Luigi (7)
B
Bachchor Stuttgart (4)
Backhaus, Wilhelm (8)
Badura-Skoda, Paul (6)
Baker, Josephine (1)
Balducci, Filippo (4)
Balsam, Artur (6)
Baltacigil, Efe (1)
Bamberger Symphoniker (11)
Banda de Lalin (12)
Banner, Carl (38)
Bar-Niv, Rami (3)
Barchet Quartett (2)
Barletta, Alejandro (9)
Bavarian Radio Symphony Orch (4)
Bavarian Youth Orchestra (1)
Bax, Alessio (2)
Bayerischen Staatsoper (3)
Bayreuther Festspiele (6)
BBC Symphony Chorus (1)
Beck, Steven (1)
Beecham Light Opera Company (1)
Beemer, Lindsey (3)
Beethoven Orchestra Bonn (1)
Behrens, Henrik (1)
Beijing Symphony Orchestra (1)
Beilman, Benjamin (3)
Belcea Quartet (7)
Belgian National Orchestra (1)
Bellincioni, Gemma (1)
Belov, Anton (2)
Benedetti, Nicola (4)
Benesch, Senta (3)
Benucci, Luca (4)
Berghan, Thomas (8)
Berlin Municipal Orchestra (2)
Berliner Motettenchor (2)
Berliner Philharmoniker (20)
Berne Union Bands (61)
Berner Kammerchor (1)
Bertazzi, Alfonso (36)
Berting, Tiffany (1)
Bertoglio, Chiara (8)
Bertoli, Mauro (17)
Bertram, Jan (10)
Betts, Donald (12)
Bicinia (4)
Bique, Jeanine De (3)
Bisotti, Sandro (63)
Bispham, Peter (2)
Biss, Jonathan (12)
Blancard, Jacqueline (5)
Blasorchester Aachen (1)
Bobesco, Lola (1)
Boldyrev, Nikita (18)
Bolshoi Theatre (3)
Boninsegna, Celestina (1)
Boote, Cindy (16)
Borgstede, Michael (12)
Borromeo String Quartet (27)
Boskovsky, Willi (1)
Boston Children’s Chorus (2)
Boston Symphony Orchestra (6)
Bouillon, Gabriel (1)
Boyd Neel Orchestra (8)
Boyd, Brian J. (1)
Boyd, Douglas (1)
Brailowski, Alexander (1)
Braun, Oscar (1)
Breemer, Chris (319)
Bronner, Friedemann (2)
Brooks, Bill (1)
Bruck, Drora (10)
Bruckner Orchestra Linz (4)
Bryant, Lilian (2)
Bryce, David (2)
Budapest Festival Orchestra (1)
Budapest String Quartet (5)
Budd, Mark (10)
C
Cadenza Strings (1)
Cahill, Sarah (2)
Callens-Janssens, Ann (7)
Calligaris, Sergio (21)
Cambridge University Guitar Quartet (5)
Cameron, Jim (5)
Candle Light Trio (2)
Cano, Jennifer Johnson (4)
Cantata Singers of Ottawa (11)
Canto Armonico USA (7)
Cantrell, Paul (14)
Capsir, Mercedes (1)
Capuana, Franco (1)
Caratelli, Sebastian (3)
Carnevale, Roberto (17)
Carr, Colin (7)
Carter, Jeff (29)
Casadesus, Gaby (2)
Casadesus, Robert (5)
Casals, Pablo (11)
Castellano, Jennifer (8)
Central State University Chorus (1)
Cerovsek, Corey (10)
Ceysson, Emmanuel (2)
Chaimovich, Vadim (3)
Chan, Robert (5)
Chan, Sonia (2)
Chauvineau, Bertrand (10)
Check, Jennifer (1)
Chen, Ray (1)
Chen, Yunjie (2)
Cheng, Gloria (1)
Cheng, Steven (13)
Chetty, Samuel (5)
Chi, Katherine (4)
Chicago Symphony Orchestra (4)
Choe Min-Suk (5)
Choeur Des Marias (22)
Choral Union of Janesville (1)
Chorale Totus Tuus (5)
Chorlorado (12)
Christou, Nicolas (30)
Chrysostomos (2)
Chuang, Ya-Fei (2)
Cinalli, Marcelo (2)
Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra (3)
City of Birmingham Orchestra (2)
Claremont Piano Trio (26)
Clark, Eric (4)
Cleveland Orchestra (1)
Cobo, Alberto (17)
Coleman, Chase (26)
Coleman, Nathan (23)
Collegium Karalitanum (4)
Collegium Terpsichore (3)
Colorado Choir (15)
Columbia Chamber Orchestra (6)
Columbia Symphony Orchestra (4)
Concas, Graziella (5)
Concert Hall Symphony Orchestra (1)
Concertgebouw Orchestra (14)
Concerto vocale Tübingen (2)
Conley, Eugene (4)
Conrad, Doda (3)
Conservatoire de Paris (12)
Cooke, Sasha (1)
Coral Arte Viva (28)
Corale Polifonica Cascinese (22)
Corale Polifonica Psalterium (38)
Corale Quadriclavio (10)
Corale San Gaudenzio (56)
Cori Spezzati (8)
Cornell University Chorus (1)
Coro Cantabile (10)
Coro Cetra (1)
Coro de la Universidad de Alcalá (3)
Coro di Milano della RAI (1)
Coro et Laboro (4)
Coro Mozart (5)
Coro Polifonico Casella (13)
Coro Polifonico di Milano (1)
Cortot, Alfred (22)
Cotachecci (1)
Crawford, Jesse (1)
Cremonte, Paolo Wolfango (3)
Crispino, Patricia (4)
Croatian RTV Symphony Orchestra (1)
Cuarteto Giacobbe (1)
Cuarteto Pessina (2)
Cvetkovic, Kristian (1)
Cypress Lake Vocal Department (28)
Czech Philharmonic Orchestra (1)
Cziffra, Georges (2)
D
Daedalus Quartet (3)
Dallas Opera (1)
Damase, Jean-Michel (1)
Danco, Suzanne (1)
Davis High School Orchestra (2)
De Klijn, Nap (2)
De Sole, Nina (4)
Denk, Jeremy (10)
Dessoff Choirs (10)
Detroit Symphony Orchestra (3)
Deutsche Oper Berlin (1)
Deutsche Staatsoper Berlin (4)
Deutsches Symphonie Orchester Berlin (5)
DeWitt Wind Ensemble (25)
Di Xiao (1)
Dietrich, Marie (1)
Djordjevic, Alexander (8)
Djupdal, Karstein (8)
Dobrzanski, Slawomir (2)
Dohnanyi Orchestra Budafok (4)
Dolan, Eugene (4)
Domchor St. Martin Eisenstadt (3)
Draper, Haydn P. (1)
Dresden Philharmonic (1)
Druart, Henri (2)
Dukes, Craig (5)
Dumbarton Oaks chamber orchestra (2)
Dumont, Lily (5)
Dunn, Aaron (1)
Duo Rosenthal - Auer (2)
Duske, Joachim (2)
Dussaut, Thérèse (4)
E
Eckel, Nathan (2)
Edelmann, Otto (4)
Egger, Armin (7)
Eggington, John (2)
Eggma Trio (8)
Eklund, Robert (14)
El Paso Wind Symphony (1)
Enescu, George (6)
Ensemble Favori (1)
Ensemble Les Nations (4)
Erasmus Kamerkoor Rotterdam (6)
Erb, Karl (1)
Erbentraut, John (1)
Eroica Trio (6)
Esch, Cor van (67)
F
Fain, Timothy (1)
Falcón, Laia (1)
Fanfare Ciocărlia (1)
Farnadi, Edith (4)
Farneti, Maria (1)
Faulk, Ed (2)
Faull, Ellen (5)
Ferber, Albert (6)
Ferraresi, Simone (4)
Ferrier, Kathleen (6)
Filjak, Martina (4)
Finch, Catrin (2)
Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich (5)
Fischer, Edwin (3)
Flagstad, Kirsten (1)
Fleet Street Choir (1)
Fletcher, Aline G. (1)
Foldes, Andor (2)
Földesy, Arnold (1)
Fountain Valley High School (71)
Fournet, Pierre (1)
Franco, Ruddy (1)
Frazier, Todd K. (3)
Froschhammer, Julia (6)
Fuchs, Martha (1)
Fürstberger, Thomas (21)
G
Gan, Wui-Ming (16)
Gandini, Gerardo (1)
Gardels, Carlos (8)
Gardner Chamber Orchestra (17)
Garvin, Dennis (1)
Gendron, Maurice (2)
Geraint Jones Singers and Orchestra (1)
Gerard, Charley (1)
German Chamber Philharmonic Bremen (1)
German Philharmonic Orchestra of Prague (1)
Getenet, Solène (4)
Ghindin, Alexander (4)
Gianninoto, Jacopo (18)
Gibbons, John (2)
Gieseking, Walter (3)
Gilanyan, Karine (2)
Gilels, Emil (3)
Ginsburgh, Stephane (2)
Giudice, Carmelo (2)
Giulini, Carlo Maria (1)
Goehr, Walter (1)
Goetz, Brett (9)
Goetze, Marie (1)
Golan, Jeanne (1)
Goldsand, Robert (2)
Goldstein, Ella (2)
Goldstein, Martha (3)
Golovanov, Nikolai (1)
Gómez-Morán, Miriam (9)
Gomez, Ignacio (2)
Gomyo, Karen (1)
 
G (cont.)
Goncharova, Tatiana (1)
Goodman, Daniel (3)
Goose Creek Bands (30)
Gordin, Zachary (5)
Gordon String Quartet (1)
Gorus, Julian (1)
Göttingen Bach Festival Orchestra (1)
Gould, Glenn (2)
Goulding, Caroline (4)
Grant, John Lewis (9)
Greene, Arthur (4)
Grinberg, Maria (2)
Griner, Dorian (11)
Groot, Cor de (13)
Grubinger, Martin (3)
Guilet, Daniel (9)
Gulda, Friedrich (4)
Gürzenich Orchestra (1)
Guterman, Beth (1)
Gyros String Quartet (13)
H
Haaversen, Kathleen (4)
Hagner, Viviane (1)
Hakhnazaryan, Narek (6)
Halicek, Vladimir (1)
Hallé Orchestra (2)
Hamburg Chamber Orchestra (3)
Hamelin, Gaston (1)
Hamelin, Marc-André (3)
Hammer, Thorsten (5)
Händel & Haydn Society Chorus (2)
Hanysz, Alexander (18)
Harich-Schneider, Eta (3)
Harmonie des Deux Rives (7)
Harmonie Shostakovich (21)
Harrison, David (3)
Hartman, Maya (3)
Hartmann, Béla (14)
Hartmann, Julia (4)
Hasselquist, Alison (1)
Hawkins, Charlotte (16)
Hawley, Michael (17)
Haydn Orchestra London (2)
Heifetz, Jascha (9)
Heiller, Anton (2)
Heinrich Schütz Ensemble (26)
Helling, Erik (23)
Henkemans, Hans (6)
Hensley, Mark (11)
Herschenhan Quartet (1)
Hewitt Orchestra (2)
Hillmann, Joshua (8)
Hochman, Benjamin (1)
Hoehr, Daniel (14)
Höjer, Olof (7)
Hokanson, Randolph (9)
Hölderlin, Eva (1)
Hoopes, Chad (1)
Hopwood, Mark (4)
Horszowski, Mieczyslaw (1)
Hotter, Hans (1)
Hristova, Bella (1)
Hsin Chuang School Wind Band (6)
Hu, Debbie (6)
Huang, Erich (1)
Huang, Paul (3)
Hudson, Tristan (5)
Hungarian String Quartet (3)
Huynh, Lap (5)
Hyde, Walter (1)
I
Ilic, Ivan (7)
Indiana Univ. Trombone Choir (6)
Iowa State Singers (4)
Irsay, James (5)
Ivanov, Gleb (7)
J
Jacocks, Kendrick (5)
Jadlowker, Hermann (5)
Janáček Quartet (1)
Jelden, Georg (3)
Jensen, Knut Erik (24)
Jeunesses musicales de France (1)
Johannsen, Daniel (23)
Johnson, Frederick (3)
Johnson, Lawrence (54)
Jones, Jeremiah (61)
Joplin, Scott (20)
Jordan, Fred (1)
Josephi, Josef (1)
Jouatte, Georges (1)
Judd, Kathy (5)
Julius Hemphill Sextet (2)
Julliard String Quartet (1)
Jumppanen, Paavali (42)
Jupiter String Quartet (3)
K
Kaidja, Leonald (34)
Kamio, Mayuko (1)
Kannen, Michael (1)
Kapell, William (1)
Kaplan, Philip (6)
Karajan, Herbert von (2)
Kari, Ilf (3)
Kataoka, Ayano (1)
Katsnelson, Jacob (23)
Kaufman, Louis (1)
Kautsch, Stewart (11)
Kavafian, Ida (1)
Kaykov, Michael (4)
Kell, Reginald (3)
Keller, Brennin (1)
Keller, Christoph (13)
Kempff, Wilhelm (9)
Kendall, Nick (2)
Kendrick, Austin (6)
Kenji Sano (11)
Kentner, Louis (1)
Kerr, Gary (11)
Kesselman, Prema (3)
KHG Chor (7)
Kibbie, James (269)
Kim, Chin (3)
Kinsella, Brendan (9)
Kirchen Chor Kronstorf (1)
Kirchner, Heinz (1)
Kirkpatrick, Ralph (11)
Klijn, Nap de (2)
Kluegel, Elizabeth (1)
Klyuev, Irina (7)
Knibb, Jonathan (3)
Knüpfer, Paul (4)
Kodeeswaran, Prasa (4)
Kogan, Leonid (3)
Kolarova, Galya (6)
Kolassi, Irma (2)
Kolessa, Lubka (4)
Konczal, Eddie (6)
Konieczny, Tomasz (7)
Kopp, Stephen (33)
Korneyev, Alexander (1)
Korsoff, Lucette (2)
Kraft, Walter (6)
Kraus, Lili (2)
Kropfreiter, Augustinus Franz (5)
Kurenko, Maria (1)
Kuznetsova, Dina (1)
Kysilko, Janna (2)
L
L'Oiseau-Lyre orchestral ensemble (7)
L'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (11)
La Scala Theater Orchestra (1)
Labbette, Dora (1)
Landowska, Wanda (5)
Laniau, Pierre (12)
Larrard, Francois de (38)
Lausanne Chamber orchestra (5)
Lee, Andy (5)
Lee, Hye-Jin (6)
Lee, Jeffrey (2)
Leider, Frida (4)
Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra (1)
Les Délices (5)
Lev, Ray (7)
Levin, Robert (1)
Li, George (5)
Li, Sam (4)
Licad, Cecile (9)
Lieban, Julius (1)
Lieban, Siegmund (1)
Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society (18)
Lipatti, Dinu (3)
Lipkin, Seymour (9)
Lisitsa, Valentina (1)
Little Orchestra Society (1)
Liu, Isabel (4)
Lloyd, David (1)
Loewenguth Quartet (5)
London Baroque Ensemble (1)
London Philharmonic Orchestra (17)
London Symphony Orchestra (10)
Long, Dan (2)
Long, Kathleen (3)
Lopez, Rachel (5)
Lopszyc, Diana (3)
Lorelei Ensemble (1)
Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra (2)
Lovisoni, Luigi Gordon (7)
Lucia, Fernando De (3)
Ludwig, Walter (1)
Luo, Tim (1)
Lust, Eliane (1)
M
Mabruk (2)
Machula, Tibor de (1)
Mackenzie, Mary Elizabeth (1)
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino Orchestra (4)
Magle, Frederik (1)
Mainardi, Enrico (2)
Mali, Emese (1)
Malmgren, Martin (1)
Małcużyński, Witold (1)
Manjarrez, Raul (1)
Manley, Gordon (1)
Mansi, Chris (6)
Mantione, Carmelo (5)
Mar, John (6)
Marchal, André (8)
Maréchal, Maurice (1)
Mariinsky Theatre (1)
Marincola, Federico (2)
Marinova, Jana (5)
Marlowe, Sylvia (10)
Martinez, Neil (2)
Martino, Gladys (4)
Masecki, Marcin (1)
Massary, Fritzi (2)
Massone, Manuel (3)
Masters, Richard (1)
Matsunaga, Ayako (1)
Maurel, Victor (1)
McCarthy, Marc (3)
McDonald-Bianculli Duo (4)
McGonnell, Carol (1)
McKinney, Adrienne (4)
MDR Symphony Orchestra (3)
Medina, Javier (1)
Mei, Mary Angelina (4)
Meili, Max (3)
Melba, Nellie (2)
Melchior, Lauritz (1)
Melchissédec, Léon (1)
Mena, Katrina (2)
Mendelssohn Choir Connecticut (5)
Menuhin, Yehudi (1)
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra (4)
Meyer, Marcelle (10)
Meyrowitz, Selmar (1)
Mhanna, Stefano (4)
MHS Orchestras (2)
Michelangeli, Arturo Benedetti (13)
Michigan Marching Band (1)
Michigan State University Wind Symphony (1)
Micol, François (13)
Miller, Stephen J. (2)
Milona, Costa (1)
Milstein, Nathan (6)
Minguet Quartet (4)
Minneapolis Orchestra (3)
Minor, Clark (21)
Mintz, Shlomo (1)
MIT Chamber Chorus (14)
Moats, Heather Marie (3)
Modern Strings (2)
Mokotoff, Charles (1)
Mollet, Pierre (7)
Momokawa, Sarara (7)
Montero, Gabriela (1)
Morello, Fernanda (2)
Morin-Paul, Nico (12)
Moser, Benjamin (1)
Moule., Derek (10)
Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg (19)
Muller, Nicole (3)
Munich Philharmonic (2)
Munich Radio Symph. Orchestra (3)
Munich Tonkünstler Orchestra (1)
Muntwiler, Felix (1)
Murray, Michael (6)
Musica Sacra Choir (27)
Musicians from Marlboro (39)
N
Nash Ensemble (1)
Nassar, Nassib (6)
Nasveld, Robert (1)
Nat, Yves (2)
National Military Band London (1)
National Symphony Orchestra (1)
National Theatre in Belgrade (1)
National Theatre Munich (4)
Naughton, Christina and Michelle (3)
NBC Symphony Orchestra (30)
NDR Hamburg Symphony Orchestra (3)
Nederlands kamerkoor (1)
Nederlands Operakoor (3)
Neuburger, Jean-Frédéric (3)
New Music Quartet (2)
New Promenade Orchestra (4)
New Symphony Orchestra London (1)
New Trinity Baroque (21)
New York Festival of Song (9)
New York Philharmonic Orchestra (21)
Nicholls, Agnes (1)
Nigrim, Dana (21)
Nodine, Mark (18)
Noehren, Robert (2)
North Texas Wind Symphony (1)
Noye, Jeremy (1)
Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (1)
O
O'Doan, Neil (6)
Oberon Quartet (3)
Octarium (1)
Odnoposoff, Ricardo (2)
Oistrakh, David (3)
Oldfather, Christopher (2)
Opéra National de Paris (16)
Opéra-Comique Paris (7)
Oppenheim, Vladimir (5)
Orchester Forum Kremstal (1)
Orchestra di Milano della RAI (16)
Orchestra di Napoli della RAI (1)
Orchestra sinfonica di Roma della RAI (7)
Orchestra di Torino della RAI (9)
Orchestra EIAR di Torino (1)
Orchestra Filarmonica Ceca (4)
Orchestre Colonne (3)
Orchestre Lamoureux (12)
Orchestre Nationale de France (12)
Orchestre Philharmonique de Paris (8)
Orchestre Radio-Lyrique (1)
Orchestre Symphonique de Radio Paris (1)
Orion String Quartet (8)
Ornstein, Severo (2)
 
O (cont.)
Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra (1)
Oshry, Jonathan (11)
Osten, Eva von der (2)
Ounapuu, Allar (13)
Oxford Symphony Orchestra (1)
Oxman, Ralph (1)
P
Pack, Tim S. (10)
Padmore, Mark (3)
Paganini Quartet (2)
Palacio de Bellas Artes (1)
Panzéra, Charles (1)
Park, Susie (1)
Parnas, Cicely (2)
Parris, Brett (1)
Pascal string quartet (6)
Pascale, Tom (37)
Pasquier Trio (2)
Patti, Adelina (2)
Patzak, Julius (4)
Paulus-Orchester Stuttgart (9)
Payette, Corey (4)
Peiskee, Dean (2)
Pelleg, Frank (9)
Peltzer, Dwight (1)
Perlemuter, Vlado (5)
Pfaul, Andreas (41)
Philadelphia Orchestra (3)
Philharmonia Orchestra (19)
Philharmoniker Hamburg (1)
Philomusica of London (1)
Piccolo Teatro Musicale (1)
Picht-Axenfeld, Edith (6)
Pietschmann, Patrik (1)
Pinkham, Daniel (1)
Pittman, Scott (2)
Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (2)
Plançon, Pol (3)
Pleasants, Virginia (4)
Plutalov, Denis (2)
Pohl, Richard (13)
Polish RTV Symphony Orchestra Krakow (9)
Pontifical Institute (1)
Porqueddu, Cristiano (5)
Porter, David H. (1)
Prades Festival Orchestra (11)
Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra (3)
Priest, Scott (1)
Primakov, Vassily (1)
Pro Arte Orchestra (1)
Pro Arte Quartet (2)
Q
Quartetto Italiano (2)
Quatuor vocal néerlandais (12)
Quintette à vent français (1)
Quintetto Chigiano (2)
Quorum Trio (2)
R
Rabin, Michael (1)
Rabotkina, Daria (3)
Rachlin, Julian (9)
Radio Filharmonisch Orkest (1)
Radio Praga Chor and Orchestra (1)
Radio Symphonie Orchester Berlin (37)
Raffles Institution Military Band (3)
Ramirez, Carlos (2)
Rampal, Jean-Pierre (14)
Raucheisen, Michael (11)
Ravinia Festival (6)
Ravinia's Steans Institute (3)
Ray, Kumara (9)
RCA Victor Orchestra (4)
Rebecq, Henri (4)
Rebel Baroque Orchestra (8)
Reding - Piette piano duo (1)
Reichert, Aviram (10)
Reichgott, Heather W. (9)
Renardy, Ossy (1)
Renouf, Joe (59)
Requiro, David (1)
RIAS Symphony Orchestra Berlin (1)
Richards, Werner (4)
Riegler, Anne (10)
Riley, Drake (1)
Rimas, Juozas (1)
Rimini Choral Workshop (3)
Rinehart, Jennifer (1)
Rio, Eddy del (4)
Ritzerfeld, Wim (1)
Robert Shaw Chorale (2)
Robin Hood Dell Orchestra of Philadelphia (1)
Robin, Mado (5)
Robison, Paula (7)